QueryBuilder

Build fast and error-free SQL Query for your report.

Introduction

QueryBuilder helps you to generate SQL Query using pure PHP code. The benefits of using this package are:

  1. To create faster, better and more precise SQL query without any syntax error.
  2. To overcome to complexity of SQL even if you are expert.
  3. To prevent your data from security risks such as sql injection.

If you are familiar with Laravel, an famous PHP Framework, you will like this package very much because you will not need to learn how to use this package.

Installation

  1. Unzip the querybuilder.zip
  2. Copy querybuilder into koolreport/packages
  3. All done!

Documentation

Generate compatible SQL query for different database systems

QueryBuilder package support MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLServer query type.

MySQL Query

Use may cover your query in MySQL::type() function to get SQL in string or use toMySQL() of the query.

$this->src('mysql_database')->query(MySQL::type(
    DB::table('orders')
))

$this->src('mysql_database')->query(
    DB::table('orders')->toMySQL()
)

PostgreSQL Query

Use may cover your query in PostgreSQL::type() function to get SQL in string or use toPostgreSQL() of the query.

$this->src('mysql_database')->query(PostgreSQL::type(
    DB::table('orders')
))

$this->src('postgresql_database')->query(
    DB::table('orders')->toPostgreSQL()
)

SQLServer Query

Use may cover your query in SQLServer::type() function to get SQL in string or use toSQLServer() of the query.

$this->src('sqlserver_database')->query(SQLServer::type(
    DB::table('orders')
))

$this->src('sqlserver_database')->query(
    DB::table('orders')->toSQLServer()
)

Retrieving Results

Retrieving All Rows From A Table

You may use the table method on the DB facade to begin a query. The table method returns a fluent query builder instance for the given table, allowing you to chain more constraints onto the query.


use \koolreport\querybuilder\DB;
use \koolreport\querybuilder\MySQL;

class MyReport extends \koolreport\KoolReport
{
    function settings()
    {
        return array(
            "dataSources"=>array(
                "automaker"=>array(
                    "connectionString"=>"mysql:host=localhost;dbname=automaker",
                    "username"=>"root",
                    "password"=>"",
                    "charset"=>"utf8"
                ),
            )
        );
    }
    function setup()
    {
        $this->src('automaker')->query(MySQL::type(
            DB::table("payments") // Equivalent to : "SELECT * FROM payments"
        ))
        ->pipe($this->dataStore('payments'));
    }
}

Retrieving A Single Row

If you just need to retrieve a single row from the database table, you may use the first method.

DB::table('users')->where('name', 'John')->first()

// Equivalent: "SELECT * FROM users WHERE `name`='John' LIMIT 1"

Aggregates

The query builder also provides a variety of aggregate methods such as count, max, min, avg, and sum. You may call any of these methods after constructing your query:

DB::table('orders')->groupBy('country')->sum('amount')

DB::table('orders')->count()

DB::table('customers')->groupBy('state')
    ->avg('income')->as('avgIncome')

Sub query table

QueryBuilder support creating sub query. Meaning that you can query from a table generated by another query.

DB::table([
    'orders',
    't'=>function($query){
        $query->select('name','age')->from('customers');
    }]
)->...

Above will generate:

SELECT *
FROM orders, (SELECT name,age FROM customer) t

Selects

Specifying A Select Clause

Of course, you may not always want to select all columns from a database table. Using the select method, you can specify a custom select clause for the query:

DB::table('users')->select('name', 'email')

To change name of column, you may use alias function

DB::table('users')
    ->select('customerName')->alias('name')
    ->addSelect('customerAge')->alias('age')

The distinct method allows you to force the query to return distinct results:

DB::table('users')->distinct()

If you already have a query builder instance and you wish to add a column to its existing select clause, you may use the addSelect method or simple use continuously select method:

DB::table('users')->select('name')->addSelect('age')

Raw Expressions

Sometimes you may need to use a raw expression in a query.

selectRaw

The selectRaw method can be used to create raw select. This method accepts an optional array of bindings as its second argument:

DB::table('orders')->selectRaw('price * ? as price_with_tax', [1.0825])

whereRaw / orWhereRaw

The whereRaw and orWhereRaw methods can be used to inject a raw where clause into your query. These methods accept an optional array of bindings as their second argument:

DB::table('orders')->whereRaw('price > IF(state = "TX", ?, 100)', [200])

havingRaw / orHavingRaw

The havingRaw and orHavingRaw methods may be used to set a raw string as the value of the having clause:

DB::table('orders')
    ->select('department')
    ->sum('price')->as('total_sales')
    ->groupBy('department')
    ->havingRaw('SUM(price) > 2500')

orderByRaw

The orderByRaw method may be used to set a raw string as the value of the order by clause:

DB::table('orders')
    ->orderByRaw('updated_at - created_at DESC')

Joins

Inner Join Clause

The query builder may also be used to write join statements. To perform a basic "inner join", you may use the join method or innerJoin on a query builder instance. The first argument passed to the join method is the name of the table you need to join to, while the remaining arguments specify the column constraints for the join. Of course, as you can see, you can join to multiple tables in a single query:

DB::table('users')
    ->join('contacts', 'users.id', '=', 'contacts.user_id')
    ->join('orders', 'users.id', '=', 'orders.user_id')
    ->select('users.*', 'contacts.phone', 'orders.price')

leftJoin/rightJoin/outerJoin

DB::table('users')
    ->leftJoin('posts', 'users.id', '=', 'posts.user_id')

crossJoin

To perform a "cross join" use the crossJoin method with the name of the table you wish to cross join to. Cross joins generate a cartesian product between the first table and the joined table:

DB::table('sizes')
    ->crossJoin('colours')

Advanced Join Clauses

You may also specify more advanced join clauses. To get started, pass a Closure as the second argument into the join method. The Closure will receive a JoinClause object which allows you to specify constraints on the join clause:

DB::table('users')
    ->join('contacts', function ($join) {
        $join->on('users.id', '=', 'contacts.user_id')->orOn(...);
    })

If you would like to use a "where" style clause on your joins, you may use the where and orWhere methods on a join. Instead of comparing two columns, these methods will compare the column against a value:

DB::table('users')
    ->join('contacts', function ($join) {
        $join->on('users.id', '=', 'contacts.user_id')
                 ->where('contacts.user_id', '>', 5);
    })

Unions

The query builder also provides a quick way to "union" two queries together. For example, you may create an initial query and use the union method to union it with a second query:

DB::table('users')->whereNull('first_name')->union(
    DB::table('users')->whereNull('last_name')
);

Where Clauses

Simple Where Clauses

You may use the where method on a query builder instance to add where clauses to the query. The most basic call to where requires three arguments. The first argument is the name of the column. The second argument is an operator, which can be any of the database's supported operators. Finally, the third argument is the value to evaluate against the column.

For example, here is a query that verifies the value of the "votes" column is equal to 100:

DB::table('users')->where('votes', '=', 100)

For convenience, if you simply want to verify that a column is equal to a given value, you may pass the value directly as the second argument to the where method:

DB::table('users')->where('votes', 100)

Of course, you may use a variety of other operators when writing a where clause:

DB::table('users')->where('votes', '>=', 100)

DB::table('users')->where('votes', '<>', 100)

DB::table('users')->where('name', 'like', 'T%')

You may also pass an array of conditions to the where function:

DB::table('users')->where([
    ['status', '=', '1'],
    ['subscribed', '<>', '1'],
])

Or Statements

You may chain where constraints together as well as add or clauses to the query. The orWhere method accepts the same arguments as the where method:

DB::table('users')
    ->where('votes', '>', 100)
    ->orWhere('name', 'John')

Additional Where Clauses

whereBetween

The whereBetween method verifies that a column's value is between two values:

DB::table('users')->whereBetween('votes', [1, 100])

whereNotBetween

The whereNotBetween method verifies that a column's value lies outside of two values:

DB::table('users')->whereNotBetween('votes', [1, 100])

whereIn / whereNotIn

The whereIn method verifies that a given column's value is contained within the given array:

DB::table('users')->whereIn('id', [1, 2, 3])

The whereNotIn method verifies that the given column's value is not contained in the given array:

DB::table('users')->whereNotIn('id', [1, 2, 3])

whereNull / whereNotNull

The whereNull method verifies that the value of the given column is NULL:

DB::table('users')->whereNull('updated_at')

The whereNotNull method verifies that the column's value is not NULL:

DB::table('users')->whereNotNull('updated_at')

whereDate / whereMonth / whereDay / whereYear / whereTime

The whereDate method may be used to compare a column's value against a date:

DB::table('users')->whereDate('created_at', '2016-12-31')

The whereMonth method may be used to compare a column's value against a specific month of a year:

DB::table('users')->whereMonth('created_at', '12')

The whereDay method may be used to compare a column's value against a specific day of a month:

DB::table('users')->whereDay('created_at', '31')

The whereYear method may be used to compare a column's value against a specific year:

DB::table('users')->whereYear('created_at', '2016')

The whereTime method may be used to compare a column's value against a specific time:

DB::table('users')->whereTime('created_at', '=', '11:20')

whereColumn

The whereColumn method may be used to verify that two columns are equal:

DB::table('users')->whereColumn('first_name', 'last_name')

You may also pass a comparison operator to the method:

DB::table('users')->whereColumn('updated_at', '>', 'created_at')

The whereColumn method can also be passed an array of multiple conditions. These conditions will be joined using the and operator:

DB::table('users')
    ->whereColumn([
        ['first_name', '=', 'last_name'],
        ['updated_at', '>', 'created_at']
])

Parameter Grouping

Sometimes you may need to create more advanced where clauses such as "where exists" clauses or nested parameter groupings. The KoolReport query builder can handle these as well. To get started, let's look at an example of grouping constraints within parenthesis:

DB::table('users')
    ->where('name', '=', 'John')
    ->orWhere(function ($query) {
        $query->where('votes', '>', 100)
                ->where('title', '<>', 'Admin');
    })

As you can see, passing a Closure into the orWhere method instructs the query builder to begin a constraint group. The Closure will receive a query builder instance which you can use to set the constraints that should be contained within the parenthesis group. The example above will produce the following SQL:

select * from users where name = 'John' or (votes > 100 and title <> 'Admin')

Where Exists Clauses

The whereExists method allows you to write where exists SQL clauses. The whereExists method accepts a Closure argument, which will receive a query builder instance allowing you to define the query that should be placed inside of the "exists" clause:

DB::table('users')
            ->whereExists(function ($query) {
                $query->select(DB::raw(1))
                      ->from('orders')
                      ->whereRaw('orders.user_id = users.id');
            })

The query above will produce the following SQL:

select * from users
where exists (
    select 1 from orders where orders.user_id = users.id
)

JSON Where Clauses

QueryBuilder package also supports querying JSON column types on databases that provide support for JSON column types. Currently, this includes MySQL 5.7 and PostgreSQL. To query a JSON column, use the -> operator:

DB::table('users')
                ->where('options->language', 'en')

DB::table('users')
                ->where('preferences->dining->meal', 'salad')

Ordering, Grouping, Limit, & Offset

orderBy

The orderBy method allows you to sort the result of the query by a given column. The first argument to the orderBy method should be the column you wish to sort by, while the second argument controls the direction of the sort and may be either asc or desc:

DB::table('users')
                ->orderBy('name', 'desc')

latest / oldest

The latest and oldest methods allow you to easily order results by date. By default, result will be ordered by the created_at column. Or, you may pass the column name that you wish to sort by:

DB::table('users')
        ->latest()
        ->first()

groupBy / having

The groupBy and having methods may be used to group the query results. The having method's signature is similar to that of the where method:

DB::table('users')
        ->groupBy('account_id')
        ->having('account_id', '>', 100)

You may pass multiple arguments to the groupBy method to group by multiple columns:

DB::table('users')
        ->groupBy('first_name', 'status')
        ->having('account_id', '>', 100)

For more advanced having statements, see the havingRaw method.

skip / take

To limit the number of results returned from the query, or to skip a given number of results in the query, you may use the skip and take methods:

DB::table('users')->skip(10)->take(5)

Alternatively, you may use the limit and offset methods:

DB::table('users')
        ->offset(10)
        ->limit(5)

Conditional Clauses

when

Sometimes you may want clauses to apply to a query only when something else is true. For instance you may only want to apply a where statement if a given input value is present on the incoming request. You may accomplish this using the when method:

$role = $_POST['role'];

DB::table('users')
    ->when($role, function ($query) use ($role) {
        return $query->where('role_id', $role);
    })

The when method only executes the given Closure when the first parameter is true. If the first parameter is false, the Closure will not be executed.

You may pass another Closure as the third parameter to the when method. This Closure will execute if the first parameter evaluates as false. To illustrate how this feature may be used, we will use it to configure the default sorting of a query:

$sortBy = null;

$users = DB::table('users')
->when($sortBy, 
    function ($query) use ($sortBy) {
        return $query->orderBy($sortBy);
    },
    function ($query) {
        return $query->orderBy('name');
    }
)

branch

Sometime you may need clause to apply to query when a parameter has specific value, you may use the branch statement.

You will pass to the branch function the list of Closure in second parameters.

$user_role = "admin"; //"registered_user","public"

DB::table('orders')
    ->branch($user_role,[
        "admin"=>function($query){
            $query->whereIn('state',['TX','NY','DC'])
        },
        "registered_user"=>function($query){
            $query->whereIn('state',['TX','NY'])
        },
        "public"=>function($query){
            $query->where('state','TX')
        },        
    ])

Inserts

Although working with KoolReport, most of the time you will deal with select statement, the query builder also provides an insert method for inserting records into the database table. The insert method accepts an array of column names and values:

DB::table('users')->insert(
    ['email' => 'john@example.com', 'votes' => 0]
);

You may even insert several records into the table with a single call to insert by passing an array of arrays. Each array represents a row to be inserted into the table:

DB::table('users')->insert([
    ['email' => 'taylor@example.com', 'votes' => 0],
    ['email' => 'dayle@example.com', 'votes' => 0]
]);

Updates

Although working with KoolReport, most of the time you will deal with select statement, the query builder can also update existing records using the update method. The update method, like the insert method, accepts an array of column and value pairs containing the columns to be updated. You may constrain the update query using where clauses:

DB::table('users')
    ->where('id', 1)
    ->update(['votes' => 1]);

Increment & Decrement

The query builder also provides convenient methods for incrementing or decrementing the value of a given column. This is a shortcut, providing a more expressive and terse interface compared to manually writing the update statement.

Both of these methods accept at least one argument: the column to modify. A second argument may optionally be passed to control the amount by which the column should be incremented or decremented:

DB::table('users')->increment('votes')

DB::table('users')->increment('votes', 5)

DB::table('users')->decrement('votes')

DB::table('users')->decrement('votes', 5)

Deletes

Although working with KoolReport, most of the time you will deal with select statement,the query builder may also be used to delete records from the table via the delete method. You may constrain delete statements by adding where clauses before calling the delete method:

DB::table('users')->delete()

DB::table('users')->where('votes', '>', 100)->delete()

If you wish to truncate the entire table, which will remove all rows and reset the auto-incrementing ID to zero, you may use the truncate method:

DB::table('users')->truncate();

Pessimistic Locking

The query builder also includes a few functions to help you do "pessimistic locking" on your select statements. To run the statement with a "shared lock", you may use the sharedLock method on a query. A shared lock prevents the selected rows from being modified until your transaction commits:

DB::table('users')->where('votes', '>', 100)->sharedLock()

Alternatively, you may use the lockForUpdate method. A "for update" lock prevents the rows from being modified or from being selected with another shared lock:

DB::table('users')->where('votes', '>', 100)->lockForUpdate()

Support

Please use our forum if you need support, by this way other people can benefit as well. If the support request need privacy, you may send email to us at support@koolreport.com.

User Reviews
(2)
Johny
on Jan 26

Congratulation on this new package. This package is amazing. Exactly what I need.

muhammad sajid
on Feb 2

This is great package ever! Really in love with it. It is similar to Laravel DB syntax which helps me a lot to learn. I hate writing SQL.